Economics Literature https://elit.weri.eu/index.php/elit <p><strong>Economics Literature (eLit)</strong>, is designed to help researchers in the area of economics keep abreast of the vast flow of literature. <strong>Economics Literature</strong> issues contain commissioned, peer-reviewed survey and review articles, short communications, book reviews, an annotated bibliography of new books classified by subject matter, and a brief of dissertations in universities&nbsp;during the previous academic year.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> WERI Eğitim Araştırma Geliştirme Basım Yayım Organizasyon ve Danışmanlık Sanayi ve Ticaret Ltd. Şti en-US Economics Literature 2687-282X <p><strong>Economics Literature</strong> is an&nbsp;<strong>Open Access</strong>&nbsp;journal and provides immediate open access to its contents. The Journal aims to promote the development of global&nbsp;<a href="http://www.budapestopenaccessinitiative.org/read">Open Access</a>&nbsp;to scientific information and research. The Publisher provides copyrights of all online published papers (except where otherwise noted) for free use of readers, scientists, and institutions (such as link to the content or permission for its download, distribution, printing, copying, and reproduction in any medium, except change of contents and for commercial use), under the terms of&nbsp;<a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/">Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial (CC BY-NC) License</a>, provided the original work is cited.&nbsp;<a href="mailto:optimumdergi@usak.edu.tr">Written permission</a>&nbsp;is required from the publisher for use of its contents for commercial purposes.</p> <p><img src="https://i.creativecommons.org/l/by-nc/4.0/88x31.png" alt="Creative Commons Lisansı"></p> Exploring Cultural Employment: The Case of Turkey https://elit.weri.eu/index.php/elit/article/view/33 <p>Culture is a core element shaping human behaviour. Cultural activities have existed from the beginning of time and gradually transformed into an industry. As a result, today, the existence of the cultural industry and cultural workers is quite clear. The purpose of this study is to outline the core concepts of cultural employment and to explore the structure of cultural employment in Turkey by using primary data obtained by an online survey conducted among Turkish cultural workers in 2016. This study contributes to the literature by examining the atypical work arrangements of cultural workers in Turkey. Our findings confirm that cultural workers in Turkey are at risk of in-work poverty, and their earnings differ according to gender, contract type, employment, and employee types. We found in this study that the middle-aged cultural workers working with permanent contracts in state subsidized intuitions earn more. This study highlights the need for systematic studies on cultural employment and the implementation of a comprehensive policy to protect the rights of cultural workers in Turkey.</p> Selda Dudu ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-12-14 2020-12-14 2 2 104 121 10.22440/elit.2.2.1 Türkiye Ekonomisinde Krizler, Ekonomik Kırılganlık ve Yapısal Reformlar https://elit.weri.eu/index.php/elit/article/view/42 <p><em>Today, globalization has gained a different dimension, and with the increase of financial liberalization, internal economic turmoil has become to affect all economies regardless of geographical boundaries. This situation causes economies to remain vulnerable to external shocks and to be dragged into crises. The fact that economies were dragged into crisis due to internal and external shocks and could not recover in a short time brought the concept of fragility to the agenda. This study highlights the relationship between the crisis and the fragility, examines the Turkish economy's crisis and its fragile structure that led to the crisis, then assesses the structural reforms needed to improve its resilience.</em></p> Tunahan Yeşilçiçek Mustafa Karabacak ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 2 2 122 145 10.22440/elit.2.2.2 Dürtme Bireysel Tasarrufları Etkileyebilir mi? https://elit.weri.eu/index.php/elit/article/view/36 <p>The policies created by targeting individuals whose decisions are considered to have unlimited rationality are insufficient to solve the problems that have arisen today and in the past. However, being able to influence behavior is very important for public policy, also understanding the impact of people's behavior on the needs of the government and policy choices have recently been made aware of these effects. Individuals exhibiting irrational behavior cause behavioral economics to go a little further every day. The nudging, one of the applications of behavioral economics, aims to prevent irrational behaviors in simple and cost-effective ways and thus to guide individuals to good and right. So much so that the nudge is rapidly becoming an alternative public policy tool in many areas. With nudging, designing and implementing evidence-based, tested policies rather than traditional policy-making processes increases the chances of success of policies. From this point of view, it is only one of these areas to increase individual savings by guiding (nudging) the financial decisions of individuals. Is it really possible to increase individual savings by nudging? The aim of this study is to provide suggestions on whether the individual savings can be increased by nudging in view of how the nudging mechanism works and considering the empirical findings of nudging financial decisions.</p> Meltem Erdoğan Veysel Karagöl ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 2 2 146 160 10.22440/elit.2.2.3 Does Monetary Policy and Foreign Direct Investment Have an Influence on the Performance of Stock Market: Further Empirical Evidence from Ghana https://elit.weri.eu/index.php/elit/article/view/38 <p>Monetary policy, foreign direct investment, and the stock market continue to dominate in discussions in developing countries. However, the linkage between the three variables in empirical literature remains unclear. This study aims to test two separate hypotheses: Firstly, the study examines the effects of monetary policy on stock market performance in Ghana. Secondly, the study also empirically investigates the effect of foreign direct investment on stock market performance in Ghana. Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) model was employed as an estimation strategy to examine the short and long-run effects using annual time series data from 1990 to 2019. The study revealed that monetary policy rate and money supply exerts a statistically significant negative and a positive effect on stock market performance in both the long and short-run in Ghana, respectively. It was also found that foreign direct investment has significant and a positive effect on stock market performance in Ghana in both the long and short run. Total capital stock and volume traded were also found to exert significant positive and negative impacts on stock market performance both in the short and long run respectively. Based on our findings, we recommend that expansionary monetary policy will be a better option to be carried out to improve the stock market performance in Ghana. Furthermore, government and private partnership may ensure the effective management of the macroeconomic variables to attract foreign direct investment into Ghana to boost stock market performance.</p> Opoku Adabor Emmanuel Buabeng ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 2 2 161 176 10.22440/elit.2.2.4 The Factors Affecting the Investors’ Decisions: A Study on Nuclear Energy Investments https://elit.weri.eu/index.php/elit/article/view/39 <p>The aim of this study is to evaluate the indicators affecting the decision of investors in nuclear energy sector within the scope of behavioral economics. There are two different stages in the analysis process in this paper. First, after a detailed literature review, six different behavioral economics biases are selected as the criteria. Secondly, these factors are weighted for the nuclear energy investors. For this purpose, fuzzy DEMATEL methodology is used. The findings indicate that uncertainty avoidance and overconfidence bias are the most essential factors affecting the decision of investors. Similarly, the mental accounting bias and regret avoidance also have important impacts for this situation. However, loss aversion bias and lack of self-control have the lowest weights for the nuclear energy investors. Additionally, with respect to the impact relation map, it is concluded that uncertainty avoidance is the most influencing issue whereas overconfidence bias is identified as the most influenced factor. Our results suggest that that strategies should be implemented to decrease the anxiety of the nuclear energy investments. For this purpose, governments should take some actions to minimize the uncertainty in the market. For instance, providing loans with low interest rate can minimize interest rate risk. This will probably decrease the anxiety of the nuclear energy investors.</p> Serhat Yüksel Çağatay Çağlayan ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 2 2 177 185 10.22440/elit.2.2.5 Yeni Kapitalizm ve Türkiye'de Tarım Sektörünün Dönüşümü https://elit.weri.eu/index.php/elit/article/view/43 <p>The 1980s are a new era that indicates that capitalism has entered a new phase in the world. This new situation, which is named with concepts such as neo-liberalism or globalization, has influenced the whole world through international organizations, and especially underdeveloped and developing countries that were not included in the capitalist system were tried to be included in this system with neo-liberal policy proposals. In Turkey, since 1980, it has been implemented neo-liberal policies and the agricultural sector with high importance socioeconomically has entered into a conversion. The aim of this study is to examine the process of transformation and change in this historical context, to examine the transformation of the agricultural sector in Turkey.</p> Şerife Bingöl ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 2 2 186 188 10.22440/elit.2.2.6