Causes of the Emergence of Fascism: A Marxist Analysis of the Example of Germany
Fascism is one of the most debated political ideologies of the 20th century. Research indicates that significant economic issues played a crucial role in the rise of fascism. However, there is no clear explanation as to why these economic problems led to fascism instead of socialism. Fascism emerged as a result of the conditions prevalent in the early 20th century, such as the devastation of World War I, global economic crises, political upheavals, social discontent, and the strengthening of national identity. It represents an ideology that reflects dissatisfaction and anger. This study aims to comprehensively examine the elements that contributed to the rise of fascism in Germany. Factors such as nationalism, authoritarianism, militarism, anti-Semitism, social discontent, and political weakness are believed to have had a significant impact on the ascent of fascism. In addition to providing a deeper analysis of the emergence of fascism, this work seeks to contribute to the debates by evaluating the conditions in pre-Hitler Germany and discussing Marx's notion that the economy is the fundamental factor determining the structure of society. The rise of fascism cannot be solely regarded as a phenomenon specific to that era. Therefore, studying the origins of fascism and examining the political, economic, and social situation before fascism's emergence allows for a more meaningful discussion about the reasons behind its rise.
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